Confederate States Navy Research Center, Mobile, Alabama,

Richmond, November 5, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report to you the operations of this department since the date of my last report, April 30, 1864.
James River. Under command of Flag-Officer F. Forrest.
Richmond, ironclad sloop, 4 guns, Commander R. B. Pegram.
Hampton, steam gunboat, 2 guns, First Lieutenant J. S. Maury.
Nansemond, steam gunboat, 2 guns, First Lieutenant J. H. Rochelle.
Beaufort, steam gunboat, 2 guns, Lieutenant E. J. Means.
Raleigh, steam gunboat, 2 guns, Lieutenant M. T. Clarke.
School ship Patrick Henry, 4 guns, under command of Lieutenant Wm. H. Parker.
Tender Drewry, Master, L. Parrish.
Steamer Torpedo, 1 gun, Lieutenant Commanding Davidson, in charge of submarine batteries.
Inland waters of North Carolina. Under command of Captain James W. Cooke.
Roanoke River.
Albemarle, ironclad sloop, 2 guns, Lieutenant Commanding A. F. Warley.
Neuse River.
Neuse, ironclad sloop, 2 guns, Commander Joseph Price.
Cape Fear River and Wilmington. Under command of Flag-Officer R. F. Pinkney.
Yadkin, steam gunboat, 1 gun, Lieutenant W. A. Kerr.
Equator, steam gunboat, 1 gun.
Arctic, floating battery, 3 guns, Lieutenant C. B. Poindexter. Squib, torpedo boat.
Peedee River, South Carolina.
Peedee, steam gunboat, 3 guns, Lieutenant O. F. Johnston.
Charleston Harbor. Under command of Flag-Officer J. R. Tucker.
Chicora, ironclad sloop, 4 guns, Commander T. T. Hunter.
Charleston, ironclad sloop, 4 guns, Commander I. N. Brown.
Palmetto State, ironclad sloop, 4 guns, Lieutenant J. H. Rochelle.
Savannah River. Under command of Flag-Officer W. W. Hunter.
Savannah, ironclad sloop, 4 guns, Commander T. W. Brent.
Georgia, ironclad floating battery, 4 guns, Lieutenant W. Gwathmey.
Isondiga, steam gunboat, 2 guns, Lieutenant H. H. Dalton.
Macon, steam gunboat, 6 guns, Lieutenant J. S. Kennard.
Sampson, steam gunboat, 1 gun, Lieutenant T. B. Mills.
Mobile Harbor. Under command of Flag-Officer E. Farrand.
Morgan, side-wheel gunboat, 6 guns, Commander G. W. Harrison.
Tuscaloosa, ironclad steam floating battery, 4 guns, Lieutenant C. P. McGary.
Huntsville, ironclad steam floating battery, 4 guns, Lieutenant J. Myers.
Nashville, side-wheel sloop, partially ironclad, 6 guns, Lieutenant C. C. Simms.
Red River.
Missouri, ironclad sloop, 4 guns, Lieutenant J. H. Carter.
Webb, steam ram, Lieutenant J. L. Phillips.
Cotton, steamer, Acting Master Alexander.
St. Marks, Fla.
Spray, steam gunboat, 2 guns, Lieutenant H. H. Lewis.

In November, 1863, the steam sloop Rappahannock, pierced for 4 guns, was purchased by the agents of this department in Great Britain. She left Sheerness on the 25th of November, without armament or equipments for war purpose, and was compelled to seek the French port of Calais to repair and adjust her engines, and to complete indispensable preparations for a voyage to the Confederate States. The officer in command reported the arrival of his ship, her condition and crew, and asked permission to repair. This being promptly granted by the French authorities, the necessary work was performed and the ship was prepared for sea without her armament, with all practicable dispatch, when, by an extraordinary and unfriendly order from the French Government, she was prevented from proceeding to sea with more than 35 officers and men, although her commander on his arrival had officially reported his ship's company at 100 men. Thirty-five men were deemed insufficient for the management of the vessel, and she is consequently detained in the port of Calais.

After an active and protracted cruise of the Georgia in the South Atlantic Ocean, being found deficient in the essential qualities of a self-sustaining cruiser, she was sold and delivered to British merchants at Liverpool in July last.

The annexed report of Captain Raphael Semmes gives the details of the combat between the Alabama and the Kearsarge, off Cherbourg, on the 19th of June last, resulting in the destruction of the Alabama, with 9 killed and 21 wounded. Captain Semmes says: "The enemy was heavier than myself in ship, buttery and crew, and I did not know until the action was over that the Kearsarge was ironclad." In this unequal combat the officers and men of the Alabama stood by their ship until she went down, and their gallantry and good conduct met the confident expectations of their countrymen. The English yacht Deerhound, owned and commanded by John Lancaster, Esq., an English gentleman who went out from Cherbourg to witness the combat, picked up some 40 of our officers and men, including Captain Semmes, and landed them in England. Others were saved by French fishing boats, and but few were picked up by the enemy.
I record and invite your attention with pleasure to the conduct of Mr. Lancaster upon this occasion. Our brave men chose rather to sink with their ship than to surrender, and he not only rescued them from death under the guns of the enemy, but until he landed them upon neutral soil treated them with equal generosity and kindness.

In May, [1864], last Lieutenant Commanding Thos. P. Pelot, under Flag-Officer Hunter's command at Savannah, organized a boat party against the enemy in Ossabaw Sound, and on the night of the 3d of June attacked, and after a desperate contest carried by boarding, the U. S. sloop Water Witch, Lieutenant-Commander A. Pendergrast, U. S. Navy, of four guns, and a crew of 80 officers and men, with a loss to the enemy of 2 killed and 14 wounded. The enemy was not surprised, and had his crew at quarters and his boarding nettings up; and our loss was 6 killed and 17 wounded.
In this gallant achievement the Navy lost one of its most accomplished officers in Lieutenant Pelot, who was killed at the head of his boarding party after gaining the enemy's deck.
A copy of the report of Lieutenant Joseph Price, who succeeded to the command, is annexed, and whose promotion to the grade of commander for gallant conduct in this expedition is recommended.

On the 7th of May last Flag-Officer Wm. F. Lynch, in command of the ironclad Raleigh, crossed the Wilmington Bar and attacked the enemy's fleet, driving his vessels to sea. In returning to port his ship got ashore and was fatally injured, her guns, equipments, iron, etc., being saved. A court of inquiry was ordered upon the disaster, whose report is annexed.

On the 5th of August, [1864], last a formidable fleet of the enemy, consisting of 18 ships, including 4 ironclads, mounting 199 guns, and manned by 2,700 men, under Admiral Farragut, crossed the Mobile Bar, when they were vigorously attacked by the forts and by our small squadron under Admiral Buchanan. This force consisted of the steam sloops Morgan and Gaines, each carrying 6 guns, the Selma, 4 guns, and the ironclad ram Tennessee, 6 guns; in all, 22 guns and 470 men.
In this action the Tennessee and Selma were captured, and the Gaines, in a sinking condition, was run ashore and abandoned, the officers and men escaping to Mobile, where the Morgan also arrived in safety. Our loss was 12 killed, 20 wounded, and 243 prisoners. The injury to the enemy's ships is not ascertained, though we know that the ironclad Tecumseh, probably struck by a torpedo, went down with 100 men, and that several of his vessels were crippled and seriously damaged. In addition to the crew of the Tecumseh the enemy's loss in killed and wounded was about 300.
Naval history records few contests between forces so unequal in ships, guns, and men, and but few in which the weaker party displayed equal heroism. Apart from graver considerations this contest possesses peculiar interest for all who are watchful of the progress of naval affairs, it being the first in which the modern and improved means of naval warfare, offensive and defensive, have been tested.
The enemy's ships, among the finest afloat, were armed with IX, X, XI, and XV-inch guns, whose projectiles varied in weight from 84 to 428 pounds. Their broadsides, the heaviest known, were discharged upon the Tennessee at distances ranging from 3 to 30 yards, and three of their heaviest ships, fitted as rams, ran into her repeatedly at full speed. The massive strength of the frame and the sloping armor of the ship resisted these assaults, and but one shot reached or made any impression upon the woodwork of the shield and this did not go through it.

On the 6th of August, the day after the battle, Admiral Farragut ordered a board of four naval officers to examine and report the condition of the Tennessee, and the official report of this board, made on the 13th of August, after detailing the specific injuries sustained by the ship, says: "The Tennessee is in a state to do good service now."
The resistance offered by inclined iron armor to the heaviest ordnance ever used upon the sea was here fully tested at short ranges, and the result, so far as known, shows the superiority of this arrangement over similar armor upon vertical planes.
Our naval officers, constructors, and engineers will not fail to avail themselves of and to profit by the instruction afforded by this engagement, Admiral Buchanan's report of which is annexed.

The steam sloop Tallahassee, 3 guns, and 120 officers and men, under Commander John Taylor Wood, left Wilmington on the 6th of August last on a cruise and returned to that port on the 26th of August. She captured 31 of the enemy's ships, of which she destroyed 26 and bonded 5.
The immediate losses inflicted upon the enemy by these captures were greatly enhanced by the delay and detention of his commercial ships in port from a feeling of insecurity, and by the augmentation of the rates of marine insurance.
During the cruise, the Tallahassee visited Halifax to obtain coal, but was compelled to leave that port by the extraordinary and unfriendly course of the British authorities without an adequate supply. The cruise was active and successful and reflects great credit on Commander Wood, his officers, and men. Commander Wood's report is annexed.

The steam sloop Florida, Lieutenant Commanding C. M. Morris, is on an active cruise, and was last heard from at Teneriffe.
The release of Lieutenant Charles W. Read from a United States prison has enabled him to make a report of his brilliant cruise in the Clarence, Tacony, and Archer during the summer of 1863.
Mr. Read was one of the Florida's lieutenants and in May, 1863, at sea, he took command of the prize brig Clarence, with 20 of the Florida's men, and subsequently changing his flag to the bark Tacony, and then to the schooner Archer, he captured 3 ships, 3 barks, 3 brigs, and 14 schooners, while a large number of the enemy's ships were in pursuit of him.
In the Archer, he then entered the harbor of Portland, Me., during daylight of the 26th of June, and at 30 minutes past 1 o'clock a.m., he boarded and captured, without loss or casualty, the U. S. revenue cutter Caleb Cushing, and took her to sea. On the following day he was pursued by two armed steamers, and finding capture inevitable, he set fire to the vessel and took to his boats and surrendered.
The cruise was very creditable to Lieutenant Read, his officers and men, and his report is annexed.

The report of Commander Wm. A. Webb, of the loss of the Atlanta, is hereto annexed, he having been lately released from imprisonment. A court of inquiry will be ordered on the loss of this ship so soon as the exigencies of the service will permit.

The ironclad sloop North Carolina, while under the command of Flag-Officer Wm. F. Lynch, became unserviceable from the destructive operations of the sea worm, and has been dismantled and an investigation of the case will be made.

The steam sloops Chickamauga and Tallahassee, each with 3 guns and 120 men under tire command of Lieutenants Commanding John Wilkinson and Wm. H. Ward, left Wilmington on the 28th and 29th of October on a cruise.

The James River Squadron, under Flag-Officer John K. Mitchell, has been actively employed in cooperation with the Army, and on the 29th of September it had a spirited contest with some of the enemy's shore batteries on the James River, silencing those upon Signal Hill.
When Admiral Lee, the Federal officer in command of the United States naval forces in the Virginia waters, discovered that our three ironclads were preparing to attack him in June last, though the force under his command was vastly superior to ours, he effectually obstructed the river in Trent's Reach with sunken vessels and other means, which obstructions he still maintains, and established shore batteries to protect them; and behind these obstructions his ironclads have continued securely to shelter themselves.
Lieutenant-Colonel Terrett, of the Marine Corps, with a body of Marines commands Drewry's Bluff, and at Mobile, Wilmington, and the James River parties of naval officers and men command shore batteries.

The submarine battery and torpedo force organized by the department under the command of Commander Hunter Davidson, has proved efficient, and an increase of the appropriation for this service is recommended. The importance of this weapon of defensive war is becoming daily more evident as experience develops means of surmounting difficulties heretofore regarded as insuperable.
The enemy's ascent of James River by a large number of war vessels, expressly prepared for the enterprise in May last, was materially retarded by, and their final arrest was greatly due to, this force. They were compelled to scour the banks of the river with land parties, and at the same time to drag the river for torpedoes, by which their progress was reduced to half a mile in twenty-four hours; and while thus engaged on the 6th of May last, their leading steam gunboat, the Commodore Jones, was blown into fragments by a submarine battery, and their further progress for the time checked. Lieutenant J. Pembroke Jones has succeeded Commander Davidson, and he embraces Wilmington and the James River within the sphere of his operations.
Special attention is called to the necessity of providing for the education and training of officers for the navy, and to the measures adopted by the department upon the subject.

Naval education and training lie at the foundation of naval success; and the power that neglects this essential element of strength will, when the, battle is fought, find that its ships, however formidable, are but built for a more thoroughly trained and educated enemy. From 1793 to 1815 the French built and equipped fleets but to be transferred to the accomplished seamen of Britain; and in the memorable single combats, and squadron and fleet fighting of that eventful period of naval history, in which the strength, models, and ordnance of French ships and the courage of their personnel were in no respect inferior to those of the enemy, the superior seamanship of the British Navy secured an almost unbroken succession of naval victories.
While a liberal education at the ordinary institutions of learning prepares men for useful service not only in the Army, but in most branches of public affairs, special education and training, and such as these institutions can not afford, are essential to form a naval officer.
In recognition of the necessity of this special training, every naval power of the earth has established naval colleges and schools and practice snips, and the radical and recent changes in the chief elements of naval warfare have directed to these establishments marked attention.
So far as the limited resources at the command of this department are available for the education and training of midshipmen, they have been organized; and under the efficient direction of Lieutenant W. H. Parker, the beneficial results of the school-ship Patrick Henry, are being felt in the service. Many acting midshipmen, who had but entered the U. S. Naval Academy of Annapolis when the war began, have here completed their course of naval studies, and in addition to these, 29 youths, appointed originally to this school and representing nearly every portion of the Confederacy, have graduated as passed midshipmen or masters, and they will compare favorably with those of like grades in any naval service.
The number of acting midshipmen is limited by existing laws to 106, who are being appointed from the several congressional districts of the Confederate States as equally as practicable; and as the school ship affords accommodations but for one-half of this number, their scholastic course is divided between the vessels in service and the school ship.
This is disadvantageous to the officer, who thus loses, or fails to acquire, the habit of methodical and continuous study, and who, being uninformed upon the theory of his profession, is unprepared to properly profit by the opportunity thus afforded him of participating in its practical duties
A small expenditure will enable us to place the whole number of midshipmen authorized by law under instruction at the school, and I recommend that provision be made accordingly. The erection of a few cabins at Drewry's Bluff, in addition to those now in use there will be sufficient to meet this object.
The number of midshipmen authorized by law is insufficient to meet the wants of the service present or prospective. An increase of the navy must necessarily follow the attainment of peace and independence, and the youths whom we are now educating are those to whom we are to look to sustain the flag of the country in foreign seas. No accurate estimate of the proportion of graduates to the whole number appointed--106--can as yet be made, but we may safely assume that it can not exceed one-half, and it, is evident that 53 graduates, distributed through 4 years are insufficient to meet the demands of the service. Additional quarters will enable us to provide for the tuition of 150; and I deem it proper therefore to recommend that the number of midshipmen be increased to 150.
The system of instruction conforms as far as practicable to that adopted in the most approved naval schools; and it forms a nucleus for an establishment which the necessities of the naval service and the interests of the country will, at an early day, render indispensable, and a well considered plan and organization for which I am prepared to submit whenever the condition of the country may seem to call for legislation upon the subject.
I have the honor to recommend that authority be given for the employment of six teachers for the war, with the rank and pay of first lieutenants in the Navy. The branches for which they are required are mathematics, modern languages, ethics, and English studies, drawing and drafting, sword and bayonet exercise, seamanship, gunnery, and other branches being taught by naval officers. Under existing regulations those employed to teach the foregoing branches can only receive the compensation of masters--one thousand dollars per annum and a ration--a compensation inadequate to their support.
Under the act entitled an act "To create a provisional Navy of the Confederate States," the provisional Navy has been organized and its formation is shown in the official Naval Register.
The condition of the Marine Corps is set forth in Colonel Beall's report annexed.
Its aggregate strength is shown to be 539. Since my last report the marines have displayed their accustomed discipline and gallantry under fire at Drewry's Bluff, and also in the naval and land engagements of the 5th and 6th of August last in the Bay of Mobile.
The organization of the Corps is that of a regiment of infantry, to which in pay and allowances it should be assimilated; and, as the monthly pay of its noncommissioned officers, musicians, and privates is now $3 less than that of the same grades in the infantry, an increase to this extent is recommended.
The mechanics and other operatives under this department at Richmond are organized, armed, and equipped as a military force, and the repeated demonstrations of the enemy upon the city calling them to the field, have in all cases seriously retarded, and in some instances entirely suspended, the progress of important works under its direction. Many of the most skillful of these artisans are Europeans who feel but little interest in our struggle, are unwilling to encounter the perils or privations of war, and desertions among them are frequent. The enemy, it is understood, holds out tempting inducements to this class of our citizens to leave us, and the limited number of experienced artisans in the Confederacy is daily decreasing. It will be found very difficult to supply the places of these mechanics, but as the demand for skilled labor is urgently felt throughout the Confederacy in public and private establishments, the subject demands consideration.
Under the existing enrollment and conscription laws mechanics, with the exception of a few exempts from military service, can only be obtained for naval works by details from the Army or the conscript camps. When thus detailed they are still regarded as in the Army, and their monthly pay and emoluments, are received from officers of the Army, while their compensation as mechanics is paid by those of the Navy. Much inconvenience and detriment to the public service results from this practice. A perpetual struggle exists between the military officers from whose commands these mechanics are detailed and the naval officers under whom they are employed for their possession. The Navy Department receives almost daily notices of the revocation of the details of its workmen, or of calls for their return to their commands, while the mechanic himself, uncertain as to what moment he may be returned to a marching regiment, is discontented and neglects means and opportunities for improving his condition by which he might be better able to serve the country.
To correct what I regard as an evil, I have the honor to recommend that provision be made for the enlistment in the Navy of the skilled mechanics who are permanently required in our workshops and for the transfer, instead of the detail, of such mechanics from the Army. While this would lead to the improvement of the condition of the individual artisan, it would at the same time, by placing a body of men permanently under the distinct organization and discipline of the Navy, and, familiarizing them with their officers, render them more efficient in the field when called upon as a military organization. Should this recommendation be approved, it will be necessary to remove the limitation upon the number of enlisted men for the Navy.

The report of Chief Constructor John L. Porter, hereto annexed, and to which attention is invited, furnishes detailed information as to vessels in course of construction.
At Richmond, Va.--Two ironclad sloops and five torpedo boats are being built. One of the ironclads is launched awaiting iron armor. Machinery in readiness. Two of the torpedo boats nearly ready for service.
At Scotland Neck, on the Roanoke River, N. C.--A light-draft ironclad sloop and a steam tender to be armed are making fair progress.
At Wilmington, N. C.--A fast light-draft, double-casemated steam ram is making good progress, with armor and machinery in readiness for the hull.
At Charleston, S. C.--The new ironclad sloop Columbia, with four guns, is nearly ready to go into commission, her battery being on board.
The hulls of two others are ready for their armor.
At Mars Bluff, Peedee River, S. C.--The steam sloop Peedee, with four heavy guns, has been completed and placed in commission.
A steam tender and a torpedo boat are being, built.
At Savannah, Ga.--Two ironclad sloops in readiness for their armor, one of them launched, and machinery for both ready.
At Columbus, Ga.--One light-draft ironclad under construction delayed for iron armor. Machinery ready.
At Mobile, Ala.--The side-wheel steam sloop Nashville has been received from the contractors, who were unable to complete her for want of iron. She is partially armored and mounts three heavy guns. Three other ironclads are being constructed.
At Selma, Ala.--The large side-wheel steam sloop constructed at this place by Contractors Shirley and DeHaven was fatally injured as a war vessel in launching, and the contractors being unable to fulfill their contract, the unfurnished ship was sold to reimburse the Government for advances made.
The Atlanta Rolling Mill, which has rolled the largest portion of iron armor plate heretofore used upon our ships, was removed to Columbia, S. C., and is there being reerected. The stoppage of this mill has been a serious drawback to the progress of naval construction, the hulls of several vessels being in readiness to receive their armor.

The number of enlisted men in the Navy, as shown by the report of Captain S. S. Lee, Chief of Bureau of Orders and Detail, is 3,674--a number insufficient to meet the wants of the service.
The existing laws of enrollment and conscription contemplated the recruitment of men for the Navy from the Army, but under the pressure of the urgent demand for soldiers in the field transfers to the Navy have not been made to the extent called for.
Among the naval works under the direction of the Bureau of Orders and Detail is the Rope Walk, from the operations of which, as set forth in his report, it will be seen that from the let of April, 1863, to the 30th of September, 1864. it has paid its own expenses, supplied the Navy free of charge with 84,259 pounds of rope, and has a net balance of $5,650 on hand. An appropriation of $20,000 was originally asked to enable the department to establish this work, which appropriation Congress omitted to grant.
It is now, for obvious reasons, deemed expedient to remove the machinery from Petersburg and establish the Rope Walk at a more central position, and an appropriation for this purpose is recommended.

Under the orders of the department, the energy and industry of those in charge of the Naval Ordnance Works at Atlanta, Ga., saved the largest and most valuable portion of their machinery and tools upon the evacuation of that city, and removed them to Augusta, Ga., where they are now in operation.
The annexed report of Commander John M. Brooke, Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography, gives in detail the progress and condition of the various naval works under his direction, at Richmond, Va., Charlotte, N. C., Augusta, Ga., Columbia, S. C., and Selma, Ala.
The force of mechanics at Selma has never been, and is not now, sufficient to develop the full usefulness of the establishment, and operations in some of its branches are not, in consequence, conducted. Notwithstanding this serious drawback, however, in addition to ordnance of a lighter character, this establishment has turned out for the defense of Mobile 47 heavy guns, specially adapted for service against ironclads. With the exception of two lost with Fort Morgan and eight in the Tennessee and Selma, all these guns are now in position ashore and afloat. Besides these the Selma works have supplied 12 guns for the defenses of other points, including Charleston and Wilmington.

The reports of Surgeon W. A. W. Spotswood and Paymaster James A. Semple, severally in charge of the Bureaus of Medicine and Surgery and Provisions and Clothing, exhibit the condition of those branches of the public service.
It affords me pleasure to announce that our officers and men of the Navy and Marine Corps who were prisoners have been exchanged.

Estimates of the amounts required for the service of this department in all its branches have been submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury. They amount in the aggregate to $14,005,134.75.
Since closing my report I have received the official report of Lieutenant Commanding A. F. Warley of the sinking of the ironclad sloop Albemarle by the enemy, by means of a torpedo, at Plymouth, N. C., copy of which is annexed.
With great respect, your obedient servant,
Secretary of the Navy.

Richmond, Va., October 30, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith a return of the Marine Corps, showing its strength and disposition on the 30th ultimo.
By this return it will be seen that the aggregate strength of the Corps amounts to 539, Of this number, 2 captains, 3 lieutenants,
and 62 enlisted men are prisoners of war in the hands of the enemy.
Not included in this return are 32 recruits received at the naval station, Charleston, from the conscript camp near Raleigh, N. C.

The Marine Corps is distributed at the following naval stations: Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, Wilmington, and at Drewry's
Bluff; also on board of the three ironclad steamers in the James River, and as guards at the Richmond Navy Yards. Marine
guards have been assigned to the armed steamers Tallahassee and Chickamauga, destined to operate against the enemy's
commerce on the sea.
Since my last report the marines have been under the enemy's fire at Drewry's Bluff and on the James River; also in the naval
and land engagements near Mobile, on the 5th and 6th of August last. A marine guard under the command of Lieutenant
Crenshaw was attached to the Confederate steamship Tallahassee during the late cruise, when much damage was inflicted
upon the enemy's shipping at sea.
Upon all occasions when the marines have been called upon for active service they have displayed the promptness and
efficiency of well-disciplined soldiers.
The monthly pay of the noncommissioned officers, musicians, and privates of the Marine Corps being $3 less than that of the
Infantry of the Army, I beg leave to recommend that Congress may be asked to increase the rate of pay of marines to that
allowed to Infantry.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel Commanding C. S. Marine Corps.

 To: Hon. S. R. MALLORY,
Secretary of the Navy. 2000